Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] How the ER manages mitochondrial division

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Stella M. Hurtley
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Thinning a ferroelectric makes it better

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Jelena Stajic
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Epigenetic regulation in the brain

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: L. Bryan Ray
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] This is no time to be a butterfly

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Julia Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] C9ORF72, a suppressor of autoimmunity?

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Orla M. Smith
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Turning the corner

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: H. Jesse Smith
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] Smashing bits to show asteroid strength

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Keith T. Smith
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] A less personal cancer therapy?

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Paula A. Kiberstis
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] Immigration and admixture in Europe

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Andrew M. Sugden
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] Shaping the interaction potential

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Jelena Stajic
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] Poor predictors

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Sacha Vignieri
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Editors' Choice] Modeling pancreas development with CRISPR

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Beverly A. Purnell
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Research Article] ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis—events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria. Authors: Samantha C. Lewis, Lauren F. Uchiyama, Jodi Nunnari
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Research Article] Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Large volcanic eruptions on Earth commonly occur with a collapse of the roof of a crustal magma reservoir, forming a caldera. Only a few such collapses occur per century, and the lack of detailed observations has obscured insight into the mechanical interplay between collapse and eruption. We use multiparameter geophysical and geochemical data to show that the 110-square-kilometer and 65-meter-deep collapse of Bárdarbunga caldera in 2014–2015 was initiated through withdrawal of magma, and lateral migration through a 48-kilometers-long dike, from a 12-kilometers deep reservoir. Interaction between the pressure exerted by the subsiding reservoir roof and the physical properties of the subsurface flow path explain the gradual, near-exponential decline of both collapse rate and the intensity of the 180-day-long eruption. Authors: Magnús T. Gudmundsson, Kristín Jónsdóttir, Andrew Hooper, Eoghan P. Holohan, Sæmundur A. Halldórsson, Benedikt G. Ófeigsson, Simone Cesca, Kristín S. Vogfjörd, Freysteinn Sigmundsson, Thórdís Högnadóttir, Páll Einarsson, Olgeir Sigmarsson, Alexander H. Jarosch, Kristján Jónasson, Eyjólfur Magnússon, Sigrún Hreinsdóttir, Marco Bagnardi, Michelle M. Parks, Vala Hjörleifsdóttir, Finnur Pálsson, Thomas R. Walter, Martin P. J. Schöpfer, Sebastian Heimann, Hannah I. Reynolds, Stéphanie Dumont, Eniko Bali, Gudmundur H. Gudfinnsson, Torsten Dahm, Matthew J. Roberts, Martin Hensch, Joaquín M. C. Belart, Karsten Spaans, Sigurdur Jakobsson, Gunnar B. Gudmundsson, Hildur M. Fridriksdóttir, Vincent Drouin, Tobias Dürig, Guðfinna Aðalgeirsdóttir, Morten S. Riishuus, Gro B. M. Pedersen, Tayo van Boeckel, Björn Oddsson, Melissa A. Pfeffer, Sara Barsotti, Baldur Bergsson, Amy Donovan, Mike R. Burton, Alessandro Aiuppa
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Research Article] Shrinking light to allow forbidden transitions on the atomic scale

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
The diversity of light-matter interactions accessible to a system is limited by the small size of an atom relative to the wavelength of the light it emits, as well as by the small value of the fine-structure constant. We developed a general theory of light-matter interactions with two-dimensional systems supporting plasmons. These plasmons effectively make the fine-structure constant larger and bridge the size gap between atom and light. This theory reveals that conventionally forbidden light-matter interactions—such as extremely high-order multipolar transitions, two-plasmon spontaneous emission, and singlet-triplet phosphorescence processes—can occur on very short time scales comparable to those of conventionally fast transitions. Our findings may lead to new platforms for spectroscopy, sensing, and broadband light generation, a potential testing ground for quantum electrodynamics (QED) in the ultrastrong coupling regime, and the ability to take advantage of the full electronic spectrum of an emitter. Authors: Nicholas Rivera, Ido Kaminer, Bo Zhen, John D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljačić
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Research Article] Emergence of healing in the Antarctic ozone layer

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Industrial chlorofluorocarbons that cause ozone depletion have been phased out under the Montreal Protocol. A chemically driven increase in polar ozone (or “healing”) is expected in response to this historic agreement. Observations and model calculations together indicate that healing of the Antarctic ozone layer has now begun to occur during the month of September. Fingerprints of September healing since 2000 include (i) increases in ozone column amounts, (ii) changes in the vertical profile of ozone concentration, and (iii) decreases in the areal extent of the ozone hole. Along with chemistry, dynamical and temperature changes have contributed to the healing but could represent feedbacks to chemistry. Volcanic eruptions have episodically interfered with healing, particularly during 2015, when a record October ozone hole occurred after the Calbuco eruption. Authors: Susan Solomon, Diane J. Ivy, Doug Kinnison, Michael J. Mills, Ryan R. Neely, Anja Schmidt
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Discovery of robust in-plane ferroelectricity in atomic-thick SnTe

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Stable ferroelectricity with high transition temperature in nanostructures is needed for miniaturizing ferroelectric devices. Here, we report the discovery of the stable in-plane spontaneous polarization in atomic-thick tin telluride (SnTe), down to a 1–unit cell (UC) limit. The ferroelectric transition temperature Tc of 1-UC SnTe film is greatly enhanced from the bulk value of 98 kelvin and reaches as high as 270 kelvin. Moreover, 2- to 4-UC SnTe films show robust ferroelectricity at room temperature. The interplay between semiconducting properties and ferroelectricity in this two-dimensional material may enable a wide range of applications in nonvolatile high-density memories, nanosensors, and electronics. Authors: Kai Chang, Junwei Liu, Haicheng Lin, Na Wang, Kun Zhao, Anmin Zhang, Feng Jin, Yong Zhong, Xiaopeng Hu, Wenhui Duan, Qingming Zhang, Liang Fu, Qi-Kun Xue, Xi Chen, Shuai-Hua Ji
Categories: Climate Newsprint
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