Climate Newsprint

[Report] Aryl amination using ligand-free Ni(II) salts and photoredox catalysis

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Over the past two decades, there have been major developments in transition metal–catalyzed aminations of aryl halides to form anilines, a common structure found in drug agents, natural product isolates, and fine chemicals. Many of these approaches have enabled highly efficient and selective coupling through the design of specialized ligands, which facilitate reductive elimination from a destabilized metal center. We postulated that a general and complementary method for carbon–nitrogen bond formation could be developed through the destabilization of a metal amido complex via photoredox catalysis, thus providing an alternative approach to the use of structurally complex ligand systems. Here, we report the development of a distinct mechanistic paradigm for aryl amination using ligand-free nickel(II) salts, in which facile reductive elimination from the nickel metal center is induced via a photoredox-catalyzed electron-transfer event. Authors: Emily B. Corcoran, Michael T. Pirnot, Shishi Lin, Spencer D. Dreher, Daniel A. DiRocco, Ian W. Davies, Stephen L. Buchwald, David W. C. MacMillan
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Ocean forcing of glacier retreat in the western Antarctic Peninsula

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
In recent decades, hundreds of glaciers draining the Antarctic Peninsula (63° to 70°S) have undergone systematic and progressive change. These changes are widely attributed to rapid increases in regional surface air temperature, but it is now clear that this cannot be the sole driver. Here, we identify a strong correspondence between mid-depth ocean temperatures and glacier-front changes along the ~1000-kilometer western coastline. In the south, glaciers that terminate in warm Circumpolar Deep Water have undergone considerable retreat, whereas those in the far northwest, which terminate in cooler waters, have not. Furthermore, a mid-ocean warming since the 1990s in the south is coincident with widespread acceleration of glacier retreat. We conclude that changes in ocean-induced melting are the primary cause of retreat for glaciers in this region. Authors: A. J. Cook, P. R. Holland, M. P. Meredith, T. Murray, A. Luckman, D. G. Vaughan
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Ducklings imprint on the relational concept of “same or different”

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
The ability to identify and retain logical relations between stimuli and apply them to novel stimuli is known as relational concept learning. This has been demonstrated in a few animal species after extensive reinforcement training, and it reveals the brain’s ability to deal with abstract properties. Here we describe relational concept learning in newborn ducklings without reinforced training. Newly hatched domesticated mallards that were briefly exposed to a pair of objects that were either the same or different in shape or color later preferred to follow pairs of new objects exhibiting the imprinted relation. Thus, even in a seemingly rigid and very rapid form of learning such as filial imprinting, the brain operates with abstract conceptual reasoning, a faculty often assumed to be reserved to highly intelligent organisms. Authors: Antone Martinho, Alex Kacelnik
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Has land use pushed terrestrial biodiversity beyond the planetary boundary? A global assessment

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Land use and related pressures have reduced local terrestrial biodiversity, but it is unclear how the magnitude of change relates to the recently proposed planetary boundary (“safe limit”). We estimate that land use and related pressures have already reduced local biodiversity intactness—the average proportion of natural biodiversity remaining in local ecosystems—beyond its recently proposed planetary boundary across 58.1% of the world’s land surface, where 71.4% of the human population live. Biodiversity intactness within most biomes (especially grassland biomes), most biodiversity hotspots, and even some wilderness areas is inferred to be beyond the boundary. Such widespread transgression of safe limits suggests that biodiversity loss, if unchecked, will undermine efforts toward long-term sustainable development. Authors: Tim Newbold, Lawrence N. Hudson, Andrew P. Arnell, Sara Contu, Adriana De Palma, Simon Ferrier, Samantha L. L. Hill, Andrew J. Hoskins, Igor Lysenko, Helen R. P. Phillips, Victoria J. Burton, Charlotte W. T. Chng, Susan Emerson, Di Gao, Gwilym Pask-Hale, Jon Hutton, Martin Jung, Katia Sanchez-Ortiz, Benno I. Simmons, Sarah Whitmee, Hanbin Zhang, Jörn P. W. Scharlemann, Andy Purvis
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Return to quiescence of mouse neural stem cells by degradation of a proactivation protein

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Quiescence is essential for long-term maintenance of adult stem cells. Niche signals regulate the transit of stem cells from dormant to activated states. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase Huwe1 (HECT, UBA, and WWE domain–containing 1) is required for proliferating stem cells of the adult mouse hippocampus to return to quiescence. Huwe1 destabilizes proactivation protein Ascl1 (achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1) in proliferating hippocampal stem cells, which prevents accumulation of cyclin Ds and promotes the return to a resting state. When stem cells fail to return to quiescence, the proliferative stem cell pool becomes depleted. Thus, long-term maintenance of hippocampal neurogenesis depends on the return of stem cells to a transient quiescent state through the rapid degradation of a key proactivation factor. Authors: Noelia Urbán, Debbie L. C. van den Berg, Antoine Forget, Jimena Andersen, Jeroen A. A. Demmers, Charles Hunt, Olivier Ayrault, François Guillemot
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Structural basis for integration of GluD receptors within synaptic organizer complexes

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) family members are integrated into supramolecular complexes that modulate their location and function at excitatory synapses. However, a lack of structural information beyond isolated receptors or fragments thereof currently limits the mechanistic understanding of physiological iGluR signaling. Here, we report structural and functional analyses of the prototypical molecular bridge linking postsynaptic iGluR δ2 (GluD2) and presynaptic β-neurexin 1 (β-NRX1) via Cbln1, a C1q-like synaptic organizer. We show how Cbln1 hexamers “anchor” GluD2 amino-terminal domain dimers to monomeric β-NRX1. This arrangement promotes synaptogenesis and is essential for d-serine–dependent GluD2 signaling in vivo, which underlies long-term depression of cerebellar parallel fiber–Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses and motor coordination in developing mice. These results lead to a model where protein and small-molecule ligands synergistically control synaptic iGluR function. Authors: Jonathan Elegheert, Wataru Kakegawa, Jordan E. Clay, Natalie F. Shanks, Ester Behiels, Keiko Matsuda, Kazuhisa Kohda, Eriko Miura, Maxim Rossmann, Nikolaos Mitakidis, Junko Motohashi, Veronica T. Chang, Christian Siebold, Ingo H. Greger, Terunaga Nakagawa, Michisuke Yuzaki, A. Radu Aricescu
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Report] Chromatin remodeling inactivates activity genes and regulates neural coding

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Activity-dependent transcription influences neuronal connectivity, but the roles and mechanisms of inactivation of activity-dependent genes have remained poorly understood. Genome-wide analyses in the mouse cerebellum revealed that the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex deposits the histone variant H2A.z at promoters of activity-dependent genes, thereby triggering their inactivation. Purification of translating messenger RNAs from synchronously developing granule neurons (Sync-TRAP) showed that conditional knockout of the core NuRD subunit Chd4 impairs inactivation of activity-dependent genes when neurons undergo dendrite pruning. Chd4 knockout or expression of NuRD-regulated activity genes impairs dendrite pruning. Imaging of behaving mice revealed hyperresponsivity of granule neurons to sensorimotor stimuli upon Chd4 knockout. Our findings define an epigenetic mechanism that inactivates activity-dependent transcription and regulates dendrite patterning and sensorimotor encoding in the brain. Authors: Yue Yang, Tomoko Yamada, Kelly K. Hill, Martin Hemberg, Naveen C. Reddy, Ha Y. Cho, Arden N. Guthrie, Anna Oldenborg, Shane A. Heiney, Shogo Ohmae, Javier F. Medina, Timothy E. Holy, Azad Bonni
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Business Office Feature] Structural biology shapes up

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Despite advances in the field of proteomics, protein folding still remains a mystery. Yet innovations in X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and data analysis (think robots and Google) are yielding answers about protein structures faster than ever before.Read the Feature (Full-Text HTML)Read the Feature (PDF)Read New Products (PDF) Author: Alan Dove
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[New Products] New Products

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
A weekly roundup of information on newly offered instrumentation, apparatus, and laboratory materials of potential interest to researchers.
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Working Life] Wearing my disability with pride

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Author: Zachary S. Wiersma
Categories: Climate Newsprint

Andrea Leadsom's pledge to repeal foxhunting ban causes alarm

The Guardian Climate Change - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 18:51

New environment secretary has also previously admitted being confused about whether climate change is a reality

Andrea Leadsom, the new environment secretary, supports foxhunting and once said she wanted to end farming subsidies.

The pro-Brexit cabinet minister, who was Theresa May’s leadership rival before pulling out on Monday, was a surprise appointment to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).

Related: Leadsom was fresh meat in the Tories’ orgy of political homicide | Marina Hyde

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

A climate report that we ignore at our peril | Letters

The Guardian Climate Change - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 17:37

Though it does not actually say so, the report of the Committee on Climate Change (Report, 12 July) is a salutary reminder that a capitalist economy based on infinite economic growth, as expressed in terms of consumption-led GDP, is unsustainable and, if allowed to continue in its present form, will ultimately devastate the entire planet. Moreover, unless we cease using fossil fuels for energy and replace them with renewables at the earliest possible opportunity, the voluntary agreement reached at last year’s COP 21 climate summit to limit increases in global temperatures to less than 2C will be little more than hot air.

For an energy union like the GMB with thousands of members in the gas industry, the priority must be to establish a viable, UK-based, publicly owned renewable energy industry, thus enabling a just transition for those whose jobs will cease to exist in the coming decades. For this to happen, the vested interests of the privately owned energy monopolies have to be challenged, a point eloquently made by climate activist Naomi Klein at a packed meeting during COP 21 in Paris, organised by the Trade Unions for Energy Democracy network, which GMB supports.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

Brexit will force EU countries 'to make deeper, costlier carbon cuts'

The Guardian Climate Change - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 08:00

Bloc will have to draw up new plan with higher cuts for remaining 27 states in order to meet its carbon reduction target, which could cost billions of euros

Brexit will force the European Union’s remaining 27 countries to spend billions of euros on cutting carbon emissions more deeply to compensate for the UK leaving, according to experts.

The UK will be included in a Brussels communique on 20 July, setting out individual targets for EU signatory states to meet a bloc goal of a 40% emissions cut by 2030, as pledged in Paris last year.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

Pacific ​​islands nations consider world's first treaty to ban fossil fuels

The Guardian Climate Change - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 07:03

Treaty under consideration by 14 countries would ban new coalmines and embraces 1.5C target set at Paris climate talks

The world’s first international treaty that bans or phases out fossil fuels is being considered by leaders of developing Pacific islands nations after a summit in the Solomon Islands this week.

The leaders of 14 countries agreed to consider a proposed Pacific climate treaty, which would bind signatories to targets for renewable energy and ban new or the expansion of coalmines, at the annual leaders’ summit of the Pacific Islands Development Forum (PIDF).

Related: Five Pacific islands lost to rising seas as climate change hits

Related: Paris climate change agreement: the world's greatest diplomatic success

Related: Headlines 'exaggerated' climate link to sinking of Pacific islands

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

From field to fork: the six stages of wasting food

The Guardian Climate Change - Thu, 07/14/2016 - 06:00

Americans chuck out two tonnes of food a second – be it at the farm for being ‘ugly’ or at the table because we’re too finicky

Every second, an amount of food equal to the weight of a sedan car is thrown away in the US – about 60m tonnes a year. It starts at the farm. The potato that grew to the size of a brick. The watermelon with the brown slasher marks on the rind. The cauliflower stained yellow in the sun. The peach that lost its blush before harvest. Any of those minor imperfections - none of which affect taste or quality or shelf life - can doom a crop right there. If the grower decides the supermarkets - or ultimately the consumer - will reject it, those fruits and vegetables never make it off the farm.

Then there are the packing warehouses, where a specific count must be maintained for each plastic clamshell or box - and any strawberry or plum that does not make it is junked, if it can’t immediately be sold for juice or jam.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

As climate change worsens wildfires, smokejumpers fight blazes from the sky

The Guardian Climate Change - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 11:00

Drier winters, warmer springs and hotter summers make wildfires even wilder. These elite firefighters extinguish small fires before they grow into monsters

The alarm sounded and in a blink the base thrummed with activity. Smokejumpers grabbed helmets, donned kevlar suits, tested radios and strapped on parachutes. A speaker blasted Wagner’s Ride of the Valkyries.

“Final checks, OK, let’s go,” boomed a command. Within minutes eight smokejumpers were airborne in a Twin Otter, climbing into a blue Idaho sky. The plane soon returned, empty, to pick up another eight jumpers.

You face something new every time you go out of the plane. It’s up to you to figure it out

Ashley Taylor, polevaulter-turned Smokejumper. Hauls 110lb+ pack through burning wilderness. Loves her job. pic.twitter.com/UkNXgSaemP

If you’re scared, you’re doing something wrong. I haven’t been scared in a fire since a long time ago

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

TTIP proposal casts doubt on G20 climate pledge, leaked EU draft shows

The Guardian Climate Change - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 10:23

Draft proposal reveals new loopholes on a pledge to phase out fossil fuel subsidies within a decade

Trade negotiators in Brussels are proposing new loopholes on a G20 pledge to phase out fossil fuel subsidies within a decade, in the latest leaked TTIP proposals seen by the Guardian.

The EU’s draft text for a trade and sustainable development chapter also appears to draw an equivalence between the need to prevent trade distortions and the fight against climate change.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

Global warming implicated in dinosaur extinction | Howard Lee

The Guardian Climate Change - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 10:00

New technique for measuring ancient temperatures finds two pulses of climate warming at the end of the Cretaceous

In a paper published on Tuesday in the journal Nature Communications, scientists from the University of Michigan and the University of Florida show that there were big jumps in climate warming when the dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Cretaceous. This brings the end-Cretaceous mass extinction in line with the other mass extinction events, which occurred at times of abrupt and sometimes extreme climate change (including the end-Permian, the end-Triassic, the Toarcian, and others).

By employing a relatively new ancient-temperature-measuring technique called “carbonate clumped isotope paleothermometry,” scientists have uncovered an 8ºC jump in seawater temperatures that unfolded rapidly, at the same time as massive CO2 emissions from the Indian Deccan Traps eruptions (“rapidly” here means anything less than about 30,000 years, possibly centuries; such are the limits of time resolution). They also found a second, smaller spike in warming about 150,000 years later, at around the same time as the asteroid impact at Chicxulub in Mexico.

Unfortunately, the Witts paper only came out after our paper was already in production, so we could not add this discussion into our paper.

[Our] study does not have the resolution to observe the impact winter, which would only have lasted a few years at the most.

Very close to the [end-Cretaceous] boundary we have some samples that are quite warm, nearly reaching the peak temperatures from the first warming spike. Other samples are colder, but all are taken from within 1 meter of the boundary and we cannot resolve their relative timing. Clearly climate was highly variable around this time.

Around the time of the impact, volcanism was still ongoing and CO2 was continuing to be emitted, so that could have caused the warming we observe.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

India to meet climate goals earlier than promised, says outgoing climate chief

The Guardian Climate Change - Wed, 07/13/2016 - 08:49

Prakash Javadekar says India is now a world leader in tackling climate change and other countries need to follow its example, reports Climate Home

India could meet its carbon reduction goals earlier than expected, the country’s outgoing climate minister told a meeting in Delhi on Tuesday.

By 2030, the world’s fourth largest greenhouse gas emitter plans to cut the carbon intensity of GDP up to 35% on 2005 levels and boost the share of clean power in the energy mix to 40%.

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Categories: Climate Newsprint

Donald Trump would be world's only national leader to reject climate science

The Guardian Climate Change - Tue, 07/12/2016 - 18:52

Sierra Club report finds science of climate change accepted by leaders of every country recognized by US – including Bashar al-Assad and Kim Jong-un

Donald Trump would be the only national leader in the world to dismiss the science of climate change should he become president, putting him out of step even with Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe and Kim Jong-un, the leader of North Korea.

The potential isolation of the US on climate change has been laid bare by a new Sierra Club report which found universal acceptance of climate science among the leaders of the 195 countries recognized by the US state department.

Related: President Trump would be a climate catastrophe | Michael B Gerrard

Related: Climate change: the missing issue of the 2016 campaign

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Categories: Climate Newsprint
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