Climate Newsprint

[In Depth] Heartmaker's next step: a ray ‘biohybrid’

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Kevin Kit Parker wants to build a human heart. His young daughter loves the New England Aquarium in Boston. Now father's and daughter's obsessions have combined in an unlikely creation: a nickel-sized artificial stingray whose swimming is guided by light and powered by rat heart muscle cells. Incorporating advances in engineering, cell culture, genetics, and biomechanics, the "living" robot brings Parker's dream of a humanmade human heart a step closer. The stingray represents a step up from his previous effort, a robotic jellyfish, as the new robot can be maneuvered around obstacle courses with beams of light. But there's a long way to go to make larger biohybrids that can work in the natural environment, and an even longer way before Parker can really build his heart. Author: Elizabeth Pennisi
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[In Depth] In Canada, peer-review changes stir outrage

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Nearly 1000 Canadian researchers are demanding that the government immediately reverse "radical" changes that the nation's main biomedical research funder has made to its grantsmaking process, arguing that they are wreaking havoc on the science community. In particular, the researchers want the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) to reinstate face-to-face meetings of peer review panels, which the agency has ended in favor of an on-line system for evaluating grant proposals. The letter represents the latest salvo against a controversial reform effort launched roughly 4 years ago by CIHR President Alain Beaudet. Responding to recommendations made in 2011 by an international review panel, the agency launched a three-pronged reform effort that revamped its funding streams, the way researchers submitted proposals, and the way proposals are reviewed. But the changes have been met with fierce criticism from researchers. Author: Wayne Kondro
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Feature] Rewilding Rio

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
A team of ecologists is recreating a living rainforest in the heart of the Olympic city Author: Herton Escobar
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Feature] Hurdling obstacles

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Earlier this month, Marcia McNutt officially became the president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the latest in a long line of accomplishments for the geophysicist, many of them a first for a woman—she previously ran the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), was president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, and most recently was editor-in-chief of the Science family of journals. None of those stints were easy—she dealt with the massive oil spill from the Deepwater Horizon explosion and pushed through a major reorganization while at USGS, for example. Colleagues say that a mix of decisiveness, humanity, and negotiating skill have served McNutt well both as a researcher and an administrator. "I bow my head to Marcia," says Massachusetts Institute of Technology physical oceanographer Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli. "She has a spine of iron." Author: Ellen Ruppel Shell
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Perspective] Learning to move on land

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
How did early four-limbed vertebrates, or stem tetrapods, move on land? On page 154 of this issue, McInroe and co-workers bring together expertise from several fields—including biomechanical analysis of a modern analog, mathematical modeling, controlled drag measurements in granular media, and bioinspired robotics—to address this question (1). They find that properly coordinated tail movements make locomotion efficient when limb motion is suboptimal and substrates are challenging. Thus, the tail may have helped stem tetrapods to move on land. The work exemplifies a move in paleontology toward increasingly interdisciplinary research (2). Author: John A. Nyakatura
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Perspective] Molecular sieves for gas separation

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Separation and purification are critical industrial processes for separating components of chemical mixtures, and these processes account for about half of industrial energy usage (1). Gas mixtures of compounds with very similar physical properties are particularly difficult to separate. On pages 137 and 141 of this issue, Cadiau et al. (2) and Cui et al. (3), respectively, show that microporous materials can be designed to have high adsorption capacity and selectivity for particular hydrocarbons, enabling energy-efficient separation. Author: Jerry Y. S. Lin
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Perspective] Network analytics in the age of big data

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
We live in a complex world of interconnected entities. In all areas of human endeavor, from biology to medicine, economics, and climate science, we are flooded with large-scale data sets. These data sets describe intricate real-world systems from different and complementary viewpoints, with entities being modeled as nodes and their connections as edges, comprising large networks. These networked data are a new and rich source of domain-specific information, but that information is currently largely hidden within the complicated wiring patterns. Deciphering these patterns is paramount, because computational analyses of large networks are often intractable, so that many questions we ask about the world cannot be answered exactly, even with unlimited computer power and time (1). Hence, the only hope is to answer these questions approximately (that is, heuristically) and prove how far the approximate answer is from the exact, unknown one, in the worst case. On page 163 of this issue, Benson et al. (2) take an important step in that direction by providing a scalable heuristic framework for grouping entities based on their wiring patterns and using the discovered patterns for revealing the higher-order organizational principles of several real-world networked systems. Authors: Nataša Pržulj, Noël Malod-Dognin
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Perspective] Solar-powering the Internet of Things

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
The Internet connects billions of computational platforms of various sizes, from supercomputers to smart phones. However, the same types of data transmission can connect computational resources to much simpler sensors “at the edge of the net” that collect, analyze, and transmit data, as well as controllers that receive instructions. Devices deployed in the environment, homes and offices, and even our bodies would expand the number of connected devices to the trillions. This “Internet of Things” (IoT) underlies the vision of smart homes and buildings that could sense and transmit their status and respond appropriately (1), or track and report on the state of objects (vehicles, goods, or even animals) in the environment. However, the practical implementation of the IoT has been relatively slow, in part because all of these edge devices must draw electrical power from their local environment. We analyze the use of photovoltaics (PV) to power devices and help bring the IoT to fruition. Authors: Richard Haight, Wilfried Haensch, Daniel Friedman
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Policy Forum] The Genome Project-Write

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
The Human Genome Project (“HGP-read”), nominally completed in 2004, aimed to sequence the human genome and to improve the technology, cost, and quality of DNA sequencing (1, 2). It was biology's first genome-scale project and at the time was considered controversial by some. Now, it is recognized as one of the great feats of exploration, one that has revolutionized science and medicine. Authors: Jef D. Boeke, George Church, Andrew Hessel, Nancy J. Kelley, Adam Arkin, Yizhi Cai, Rob Carlson, Aravinda Chakravarti, Virginia W. Cornish, Liam Holt, Farren J. Isaacs, Todd Kuiken, Marc Lajoie, Tracy Lessor, Jeantine Lunshof, Matthew T. Maurano, Leslie A. Mitchell, Jasper Rine, Susan Rosser, Neville E. Sanjana, Pamela A. Silver, David Valle, Harris Wang, Jeffrey C. Way, Luhan Yang
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Book Review] Master manipulators

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
In her new book, This Is Your Brain on Parasites, Kathleen McAuliffe examines the unusual and often dramatic ways that parasites and microbial manipulators can influence the behavior of their hosts, raising the question of how much control we have over our own behavior. After reading the book, you may come to the conclusion that it is actually far less than you once thought. Author: Shelley Adamo
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Book Review] Aftershocks

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Traditionally, when scientists discuss earthquakes, we talk about geology and seismology, infrastructure and engineering, as well as management strategies for minimizing human and material losses. Nevertheless, the study of an earthquake's effect on the social and cultural elements of a community can help us understand how different societies have evolved and adapted over time and how cities have built up their relative capacity to withstand future large seismic events. In fact, as Andrew Robinson describes in his new book, Earth-Shattering Events, the effects of an earthquake can reverberate throughout a society's identity. In some cases, they have played a catalyzing role in the evolution of urban and architectural style and have irrevocably altered the communities in question. Author: Sebastiano D'Amico
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Letter] Science stands by 2009 fisheries study

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Author: Marcia McNutt
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Letter] Insufficient research on land grabbing

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Authors: Chuan Liao, Suhyun Jung, Daniel G. Brown, Arun Agrawal
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Letter] Mexico struggles to keep foreign grants

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Authors: Christopher E. Ormsby, Santiago Ávila-Ríos, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Technical Comment] Comment on “Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations”

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Poulsen et al. (Reports, 12 June 2015, p. 1238) argued that lower atmospheric oxygen levels during the Phanerozoic would have given a warmer climate. However, radiative and atmospheric structure changes under lower pressure both cause cooling, making their result unusual in that a hierarchy of models gives opposing results. Scrutiny of how radiative and cloud processes were represented, and a mechanistic explanation of the results, are required. Author: Colin Goldblatt
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[Technical Response] Response to Comment on “Long-term climate forcing by atmospheric oxygen concentrations”

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Goldblatt argues that a decrease in pressure broadening of absorption lines in an atmosphere with low oxygen leads to an increase in outgoing longwave radiation and atmospheric cooling. We demonstrate that cloud and water vapor feedbacks in a global climate model compensate for these decreases and lead to atmospheric warming. Authors: Christopher J. Poulsen, Clay Tabor, Joseph White
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] No turning back?

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Author: Sacha Vignieri
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Env's transmembrane domain revealed

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Author: Kristen L. Mueller
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Hot single-atom catalysts

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Author: Phil Szuromi
Categories: Climate Newsprint

[This Week in Science] Sparking greater blood loss

Science Magazine - Thu, 07/07/2016 - 23:00
Author: Wei Wong
Categories: Climate Newsprint
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